Input: arr1[][] = { {1, 2, 3}, {4, 5, 6}, {1, 2, 3}}, arr2[][] = { {1, 2, 3}, {4, 5, 16}, {1, 2, 3}} When not overloaded, for the operators &&, ||, and , (the comma operator), there is a sequence point after the evaluation of the first operand. The operator overloading is not possible for built-in data types. Search . a <= b For example, We cannot overload the plus(+) operator to subtract one value form the other value. Another way of defining the operator overloading is that when the operator is overloaded with multiple jobs, it is known as operator overloading. Operator Overloading & Inheritance. +x, -x, !x, ~x, ++, --, true, false. Understand operator overloading with an example, unary operators overloading, binary operators overloading. When we think about possible operation on some data type we can think of binary operators, unary operators, relational operators and perhaps some conversion operations to and from the basic types. Customizes the C++ operators for operands of user-defined types. To overload operator ‘+’ use prototype: Return_Type classname :: operator +(Argument list) { // Function Body } For Example: Let there are two matrix M1[][] and M2[][] of same dimensions. For example, Suppose we have created three objects c1, c2 and result from a class named Complex that represents complex numbers. To avoid this complexity, some libraries opt for overloading operator() instead, so that 3D access expressions have the Fortran-like syntax a(i, j, k) = x; User-defined classes and enumerations that implement the requirements of BitmaskType In this program we will perform the following operations on the strings with the help of operator overloading; + String concatenation = String compare == String copy / Finding substring << Displaying the string from the object of class T4Tutorias >> Reversing the string; Example of string Equality. In this article, we will discuss operator overloading in C#. Here’s the above example rewritten to use the ternary operator: int a = 10, b = 20, c; c = (a < b) ? a %= b How to overload operator in use defined class ? Flood fill Algorithm - how to implement fill() in paint? operator== and operator<=>, in turn, are generated by the compiler if operator<=> is defined as defaulted: User-defined classes that provide array-like access that allows both reading and writing typically define two overloads for operator[]: const and non-const variants: If the value type is known to be a built-in type, the const variant should return by value. t : f , x ?? Let’s begin this by having the basic definitions for Overloading and Overriding in C++. Note that operator overloading is different from function overloading. a | b The Number Class for Prefix Overload and PostFix Overload. In this C++ tutorial, we will be overloading the insertion and the extraction operator. y , x ? First of all, we will see how to add a matrix using operator overloading in C++. This makes operator overloading one of the most useful features in C++ -- simply because it allows you to work with your classes in a more intuitive way. However, such operators can be overloaded using member function. C++ Operators Overloading Example. You can also overload relational operators like == , != , >= , <= etc. These operator functions can be: either global function or class member function. Operatorüberladung (C#-Referenz) Operator overloading (C# reference) 07/05/2019; 3 Minuten Lesedauer; B; o; In diesem Artikel. Some operators cannot be overloaded using a friend function. a * b 0 0 0 An Example of Operator Overloading Complex a(1.2,1.3); //this class is used to represent complex numbers Complex b(2.1,3); //notice the construction taking 2 parameters for the real and imaginary part Complex c = a+b; //for this to work the addition operator must be overloaded Operator overloading is an important concept in C++. To provide multidimensional array access semantics, e.g. Rationale . Likewise, the inequality operator is typically implemented in terms of operator==: When three-way comparison (such as std::memcmp or std::string::compare) is provided, all six relational operators may be expressed through that: The inequality operator is automatically generated by the compiler if operator== is defined. This collection of solved concept based examples on C++ programming will be very useful for beginners in C++ programming language. Overloaded operators (but not the built-in operators) can be called using function notation: Besides the restrictions above, the language puts no other constraints on what the overloaded operators do, or on the return type (it does not participate in overload resolution), but in general, overloaded operators are expected to behave as similar as possible to the built-in operators: operator+ is expected to add, rather than multiply its arguments, operator= is expected to assign, etc. Home Articles. Also unlike the built-in versions, they do not sequence their left operand before the right one. Approach: Rules for Operator Overloading: Here are rules for Operator Overloading: For it to work, at least one operand must be a user-defined class object. 45 10 16 C# - Operator Overloading - You can redefine or overload most of the built-in operators available in C#. Here, one can say 3 and 5 are operands. see for example std::bitset::operator[]. The class TheNumber shown below has two private integer members. Wideskills. Operator overloading refers to the overloading of the operators. 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An idiomatic way to implement strict weak ordering for a structure is to use lexicographical comparison provided by std::tie: Typically, once operator< is provided, the other relational operators are implemented in terms of operator<. 00 - C#.NET Tutorial TOC . Let's see the simple example of operator overloading in C++. first; Technology; C# Tutorial; last; 23 - Operator Overloading in C#; FB Twitter Google Plus Login. a -= b It is common, for example, in scientific computing, where it allows computing representations of mathematical objects to be manipulated with the same syntax … Constructors can be overloaded in a similar way as function overloading . Definition of Operator overloading. The return types are limited by the expressions in which the operator is expected to be used: for example, assignment operators return by reference to make it possible to write a = b = c = d, because the built-in operators allow that. to implement a 3D array access a[i][j][k] = x;, operator[] has to return a reference to a 2D plane, which has to have its own operator[] which returns a reference to a 1D row, which has to have operator[] which returns a reference to the element. Let’s begin this by having the basic definitions for Overloading and Overriding in C++. Let's see the simple example of operator overloading in C++. As a result, the caller gets DivBy5 object as the result of the Binary Operation. a += b to compare two object of any class. In order to allow operations like Complex c = a+b, in above code we overload the "+" operator. // program to overload the unary operator ++. C++ allows us to specify more than one definition for an operator in the same scope and we call it operator overloading. Overloadability. You can overload the equality operator (==) to compare two class objects. Given two matrix mat1[][] and mat2[][] of NxN dimensions, the task is to perform Matrix Operations using Operator Overloading. You can't overload new operators. Search . operator+ indicates that we want to overload the + operator. Please write to us at contribute@geeksforgeeks.org to report any issue with the above content. 01 - Overview of C#. The canonical implementations usually follow the pattern for binary arithmetic operators described above. There are different unary operators. For example, we can overload an operator ‘+’ in a class like String so that we can concatenate two strings by just using +. Likewise, the four relational operators are automatically generated by the compiler if the three-way comparison operator operator<=> is defined. ~a a << b Using global variables: Many standard algorithms, from std::sort to std::accumulate accept FunctionObjects to customize behavior. Rationale . alignof queries alignment requirements of a type (since C++11), // assume the object holds reusable storage, such as a heap-allocated buffer mArray, // preserve invariants in case next line throws, // no-op on self-move-assignment (delete[]/size=0 also ok), // copy/move constructor is called to construct arg, // resources are exchanged between *this and arg, // destructor of arg is called to release the resources formerly held by *this. Introduction to Overloading and Overriding in C++. 2 4 6 Please Improve this article if you find anything incorrect by clicking on the "Improve Article" button below. When a user-defined class overloads the function call operator, operator(), it becomes a FunctionObject type. Here is an explanation for the above syntax: The return_type is the return type for the function. Using Operator Overloading M1[][] and M2[][] can be added as M1 – M2. a *= b 01 - Overview of C#. Multiplication of two given Matrices is : Let there are two matrix M1[][] and M2[][] of same dimensions. This is known as operator overloading. Diese unären Operatoren können überladen werden. The member access through pointer to member. T4Tutorials is the class name. const_cast adds or removes cv qualifiers In C# achieving all this is possible using operator overloading. Overload + operator as global function for User Defined Class ComplexNumber . The following operators are rarely overloaded: The following behavior-changing defect reports were applied retroactively to previously published C++ standards. These operators are sometimes implemented as friend functions. Overloaded operator is used to perform operation on user-defined data type. We use cookies to ensure you have the best browsing experience on our website. In this example, we will see how to overload the ++ Unary Operator in both prefix and postfix forms. It is a type of polymorphism in which an operator is overloaded to give user defined meaning to it. a <<= b However, when you overload a binary operator, the corresponding compound assignment operator, if any, is also implicitly overloaded. Approach: To overload +, –, * operators, we will create a class named matrix and then make a public function to overload the operators.. To overload operator ‘+’ use prototype: Return_Type classname :: operator +(Argument list) { // Function Body } For Example: Let there are two matrix M1[][] and M2[][] of same dimensions. This operator is on the left side of the object like –obj, ++obj or obj--, obj++. However, I am not sure in which case a reference or a value will be returned by using the [] operator. Overloaded operator is used to perform operation on user-defined data type. Operator Overloading in c# Example In this article, I am going to discuss about operator overloading and it's example, Sometimes developers confused about it and they think operator overloading and function overloading is same but both are very different. Operator Overloading with Unary Operator. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. // An object of this type represents a linear function of one variable a*x + b. The return value will go through a Conversion Constructor. Let there are two matrix M1[][] and M2[][] of same dimensions. sizeof... queries the size of a parameter pack (since C++11) Please use ide.geeksforgeeks.org, generate link and share the link here. Search form. It is not possible to change the precedence, grouping, or number of operands of operators. ^x , x = y , x.y , x?.y , c ? 00 - C#.NET Tutorial TOC . The postfix increment and decrement operator is usually implemented in terms of the prefix version: Although canonical form of pre-increment/pre-decrement returns a reference, as with any operator overload, the return type is user-defined; for example the overloads of these operators for std::atomic return by value. Example of Unary Operator Overloading #include #include class Rectangle { int L,B; public: Rectangle() //Default Constructor { L = 0; B = 0; } void operator++() Unary operator overloading func. by delegating to (a user-extensible) void convert_to(std::string_view s, T& v) that is overloaded on the second parameter. Overloaded operator is used to perform operation on user-defined data type. a ^ b Unary Operators Overloading. In the above overloaded function, the appproach for multiplication of two matrix is implemented by treating M1[][] as first and M2[][] as second Matrix i.e., Matrix x(as the arguments). 0 -10 0 a = b Both increment(++) and decrement(--) operators are unary operators. delete destructs objects previously created by the new expression and releases obtained memory area For example, go through the following function − public static Box operator+ (Box b, Box c) { Box box = new Box(); box.length = b.length + c.length; box.breadth = b.breadth + c.breadth; box.height = b.height + c.height; return box; } The above function implements the addition operator (+) for a user-defined class Box. a / b The boolean logic operators, operator && and operator ||. In C++, we can make operators to work for user defined classes. Overloading: The function name is the same but the parameters and returns type changes.Since we will get to know the difference between the overloaded functions during compile time, it is also called Compile time polymorphism. Thus a programmer can use operators with user-defined types as well. a - b Another way of defining the operator overloading is that when the operator is overloaded with multiple jobs, it is known as operator overloading. In this tutorial, we will find out about operator overloading with the help of examples. +x, -x, !x, ~x, ++, --, true, false. Unlike the built-in version, the overloads do not sequence their left operand before the right one. Typically, it is implemented as T operator++(int), where the argument is ignored. Overloaded operators are functions with special function names: When an operator appears in an expression, and at least one of its operands has a class type or an enumeration type, then overload resolution is used to determine the user-defined function to be called among all the functions whose signatures match the following: in this table, @ is a placeholder representing all matching operators: all prefix operators in @a, all postfix operators other than -> in a@, all infix operators other than = in a@b. Addition of two given Matrices is: Sample 05: Here, we overload the ‘Operator +’ using Global Function. Operator Overloading & Inheritance. For example, +, -, <, ++. Operator Overloading in C++ is today’s topic. a ^= b There are no particularly notable canonical forms of operator(), but to illustrate the usage. The symbol denotes the operator symbol to be overloaded. The negation operator operates on only one operand. Overload operator is a specific function whose name is operator symbol. This class has two C++ Operator Overloading functions for parenthesis operator, one of them take two parameters, row and column and returns the value to that index form the 2-D array, and the second C++ Operator Overloading function has no parameter, it sets the array to zero, working the same way as default constructor. This page was last modified on 21 December 2020, at 10:33. Binary operator overloading 3. 209 33 92 You can only overload existing operators. C-style cast converts one type to another by a mix of static_cast, const_cast, and reinterpret_cast ostream& Hallgato::operator<<(ostream& output, const Hallgato& H) { should be . Using the code Overloaded constructors have the same name (name of the class) but the different number of arguments. There are different unary operators. Get code examples like "<< operator overloading in c++" instantly right from your google search results with the Grepper Chrome Extension. are required to overload the bitwise arithmetic operators operator&, operator|, operator^, operator~, operator&=, operator|=, and operator^=, and may optionally overload the shift operators operator<< operator>>, operator>>=, and operator<<=. In C# achieving all this is possible using operator overloading. noexcept checks if an expression can throw an exception (since C++11) About the Author: Engr Fahad. The unary operator has the single operand and the object for which they were called normally. 30 45 110 If you don’t have much knowledge on the subject, spend some of your time here: Operator Overloading in C++. 10 0 0 In addition, for comparison operators ==, !=, <, >, <=, >=, <=>, overload resolution also considers the rewritten candidates generated from operator== or operator<=>. Operator Overloading Examples. Introduction to Binary Operator Overloading The operator operates on the operands. Unary operator overloading 2. Since for every binary arithmetic operator there exists a corresponding compound assignment operator, canonical forms of binary operators are implemented in terms of their compound assignments: Standard algorithms such as std::sort and containers such as std::set expect operator< to be defined, by default, for the user-provided types, and expect it to implement strict weak ordering (thus satisfying the Compare requirements). In this tutorial, we will explain operator overloading with the help of a working example. Operator overloading is syntactic sugar, and is used because it allows programming using notation nearer to the target domain and allows user-defined types a similar level of syntactic support as types built into a language. -37 0 -16 sizeof queries the size of a type Definition of Operator overloading. To overload an operator for user defined class, we will write a separate operator function for it i.e. Example 1: Prefix ++ Increment Operator Overloading with no return type -a a >> b, a == b In this example, the unary operator is used for overloading. It then adds these values with the values of another object by overloading of + operator: Writing code in comment? A user-defined type can overload a predefined C# operator. Next, you mention the operator keyword. Unlike the built-in versions, the … This is a list of operators in the C and C++ programming languages.All the operators listed exist in C++; the fourth column "Included in C", states whether an operator is also present in C. Note that C does not support operator overloading.. formal_parameters indicates the formal parameter that takes the value from the actual parameters. So we can say the ‘-‘ as an Unary Operator. For doing operations on premitive data types there are many operator defined. Because this operator may be overloaded, generic libraries use std::addressof to obtain addresses of objects of user-defined types. Commonly overloaded operators have the following typical, canonical forms:[1]. Überladbarkeit. To overload an operator for user defined class, we will write a separate operator function for it i.e. +, – , / etc. Note that the templated to_string_impl class is not the only option. If you don’t have much knowledge on the subject, spend some of your time here: Operator Overloading in C++. I have some questions on operator [] overloading (I found this example on net). This form automatically provides strong exception guarantee, but prohibits resource reuse. An example of this operator's use in EDSL can be found in boost.spirit. Using Operator Overloading M1[][] and M2[][] can be added as M1 + M2. The header file would become this . Because operator declaration always requires the class or struct in which the operator is declared, to participate in the signature of the operator, it is jot possible for an operator declared in a derived class to hide an operator declared in a base class. When not overloaded, for the operators &&, ||, and , (the comma operator), there is a sequence point after the evaluation of the first operand. Operator overloading is an important concept in C++. Say, for example, 3 + 5 = 8. Using Operator Overloading M1[][] and M2[][] can be added as M1 + M2. Output: The unary operator has the single operand and the object for which they were called normally. a >= b The related operators are expected to behave similarly (operator+ and operator+= do the same addition-like operation). +, – , / etc. a & b Addition using friend function 4. For example, we can overload an operator ‘+’ in a class like String so that we can concatenate two strings by just using +. brightness_4 The best known example of a canonical overloaded operator& is the Microsoft class CComPtr. I understand that T& operator [](int idx) returns a reference to an array value with index idx and that T operator [](int idx) const returns its value. Since operator overloading allows us to change how operators work, we can redefine how the + operator works and use it to add the complex numbers of c1 and c2 by writing the following code: ostream& operator<<(ostream& output, const Hallgato& H) { also to be able to use the operator from other files you should add a prototype into the header file. The class allows creating a user to define the type or extract datatype. Search form. Example how to use the functions overloading concept in c++ programming: 1 ... new and delete operator in C++ with examples. 0 0 0 This is known as operator overloading. In this tutorial, we will find out about operator overloading with the help of examples. If we create a … Remember that the arguments value_if_true and value_if_false must be of the same type, and they must be simple expressions rather than full statements. The Number Class for Prefix Overload and PostFix Overload. 96 98 74 Ein benutzerdefinierter Typ kann einen vordefinierten C#-Operator überladen. In the above statement M1 is treated hai global and M2[][] is passed as an argument to the function “void Matrix::operator+(Matrix x)“. The operator operator! Binary operators are typically implemented as non-members to maintain symmetry (for example, when adding a complex number and an integer, if operator+ is a member function of the complex type, then only complex+integer would compile, and not integer+complex). Operator overloading refers to the overloading of the operators. first; Technology; C# Tutorial; last; 23 - Operator Overloading in C#; FB Twitter Google Plus Login. In this tutorial we will study and understand the concept and application of Operator Overloading in C++ Operator overloading is an important concept in C++. a |= b C++ allows us to specify more than one definition for an operator in the same scope and we call it operator overloading. Wideskills. The increment (++) and decrement (--) operators ; The unary minus (-) operator; The unary not (!) String Function: strtok, strcmp, strcpy, strlen, strstr, strcat, strcat in C++. In this C++ tutorial, we will be overloading the insertion and the extraction operator. The class TheNumber shown below has two private integer members. When we think about possible operation on some data type we can think of binary operators, unary operators, relational operators and perhaps some conversion operations to and from the basic types. Operator+ indicates that we are defining an operator for a class binary arithmetic operators described above through member function about! Will explain operator overloading in C # tutorial ; last ; 23 - operator overloading in C++, we say! Operators can not be a constant value boolean contexts of same dimensions we can the! Allows us to specify more than one definition for an operator is defined inside... As non-members type as the right one to implement operator overloading refers to the overloading of the.... Left side of the above approach: edit close, link brightness_4 code implementation of the operation... Any, is also implicitly overloaded can say the ‘ - ‘ as an unary operator in the class. Suppose we have some questions on operator [ ] [ ] can be added as M1 + M2 on [... On C++ programming will be returned by using the [ ] [ ] overloading ( I this.:Bitset::operator T ( ) for doing any type of polymorphism in operators! Also use tag dispatch or even normal overloading, we will discuss operator overloading M1 [ ] [ [. To specify more than one definition for an operator function overloading ) in?! The result of the above approach: edit close, link brightness_4 code incorrect by clicking on the Improve... Described above we want to overload the `` + '' operator quick example by overloading insertion. Operator + ’ using global function or class member function, it is friend! M1 [ ] of same dimensions operators can be added as M1 + M2 5 are operands assignment details... Class named Complex that represents Complex numbers: strtok, strcmp, strcpy, strlen, strstr, strcat strcat! Binary operators overloading, binary operators overloaded through member function x, ~x, ++, --, true false. 23 - operator overloading refers to the operator symbol i.e precedence of the operators M1 * M2,,! Other Geeks overloaded by the compiler if the three-way comparison operator operator < = > is defined ( inside class! Class ) their left operand before the right one:operator < < to... Of mathematical operations the compiler if the three-way comparison operator operator < = > defined! The operator overloading in C++ 04: in the same addition-like operation ) file.... Questions on operator [ ] and M2 [ ] can be used for overloading and Overriding in C++ language... + - * ( ) for doing operations on premitive data types delete can be used like a.... Complex numbers M2 [ ] and M2 [ ] [ ] [ ] can be added as M1 M2... Operator functions can be added as M1 * M2:accumulate accept FunctionObjects to customize behavior print class. = > is defined ( inside Test class ) -Operator überladen, spend some of Time. > is defined ( inside Test class ) but the different Number of operands of user-defined types fill ). Implicitly overloaded important DSA concepts with the above approach: edit close, link brightness_4 code, user-defined,. Arguments ) here x represents the operator is overloaded to give user defined classes retroactively previously! Overloading of the operators remains the same name ( name of the operators remains the same (. Of Time class to the derived classes on our website ( I this! Test class ) am not sure in which operators work for user defined meaning to it to illustrate the.! Operator operator < = etc: example # 1 strcmp, strcpy, strlen, strstr,,! C # achieving all this is possible using operator overloading in C++ overloaded Sample. A member of the object like –obj, ++obj or obj --, true false. An operator is not a member of the object like –obj, or... Overloading refers to the derived classes we call it operator overloading M1 [ ] can be using. Objects that can be passed to the derived classes found in boost.spirit a price. B ), where the argument ( b in a @ b ), where the is! Object for which they were called normally performing various things the canonical implementations usually follow the for. To it am not sure in which an operator for user defined class ComplexNumber instantly right from your search. Assignment and move assignment for details # tutorial ; last ; 23 - operator overloading with an example, operator... Not sequence their left operand before the right one the caller gets DivBy5 object as the right.. Divby5 object as the result of the operators the canonical implementations usually follow the pattern for arithmetic... Addition-Like operation ) indicates the formal parameter that takes the value opposite of overloading... And the operator overloading in c++ example operator an explanation for the function call operator, operator ( ), is... A linear function of one variable a * x + b class, we will operator! The extraction operator very useful for beginners in C++, we will write a separate function. Our website result of the operators use cookies to ensure you have the best known example of this type a! And they must be an object of the operators overloading with the help of a example... Whose name is Shahzada Fahad and I am not sure in which operator! The overloaded operators are declared as static, they do not sequence left... 23 - operator overloading the operator symbol this operator is used in the previous section, we discuss... The manner in which an operator is overloaded to give user defined class ComplexNumber it adds attributes! 1 ] above syntax: the following behavior-changing defect reports were applied retroactively to previously published C++.! Prohibits resource reuse as T operator++ ( int ), where the argument is ignored operator... Flood fill Algorithm - how to implement operator overloading of mathematical operations class not. Derived classes is possible using operator overloading M1 [ ] [ ] [ can! Will learn about Constructor overloading in C # an operator in the same way as functions tutorial ; ;! Manner in which an operator for operator overloading in c++ example class named Complex that represents Complex numbers types well! 21 December 2020, at 10:33 useful for beginners in C++ say, for example, operator overloading in c++ example operator ++ function. Operator operator < = > is defined ( inside Test class ) but the different Number of.. The precedence of the object for which they were called normally Chrome.. Solved concept based examples on C++ programming will be overloading the operator overloading, operators! Confusion., generate link and share the link here, it picks up both the.!, strcpy, strlen, strstr, strcat, strcat in C++, we overload the Plus ( + operator! ; last ; 23 - operator overloading in C++ are Many operator defined beginners. And deallocation see their respective articles a canonical overloaded operator is overloaded give. For details right one an argument ( == ) to compare two class.! Using global function for it i.e on user-defined data type: here, one can say the ‘ ‘... Return value will be very useful for beginners in C++ link and share link. The function call operator, if any, is also implicitly overloaded same type, and they must be as. Class allows creating a user to define the type or extract datatype:... To illustrate the usage much knowledge on the GeeksforGeeks main page and other. Is on the `` + '' operator if you don ’ T operator overloading in c++ example much on! It easy to print your class to directly compare two class objects even normal overloading, operators! Explanation for the types a quick example by overloading the insertion and the object for which they were called.. Overloaded in a similar way as functions of the object for which they called! Give user defined class ComplexNumber the derived classes operator overloading in c++ example to it value will through. Class TheNumber shown below has two private integer members string function: strtok, strcmp, strcpy strlen... Strcpy, strlen, strstr, strcat in C++ is today ’ s begin by! On only one operand type as the result of the above content during the operator is to... Of objects of Time class to the operator symbol i.e: the typical. Useful for beginners in C++ is today ’ s begin this by having operator overloading in c++ example! Is implemented as non-members is on the left side of the operators remains the name. C++ allows us to specify more than one definition for an operator is used to perform operation user-defined. Extraction operator two matrix M1 [ ] intended to be overloaded in a similar way as function overloading C++. Type C++ operators overloading, we will write a separate operator function is defined or obj,... They must be an object of this operator is on the left side of the same addition-like operation.! ) to compare two class objects examples like `` < < operator to make it easy to your... Canonical implementations usually follow the pattern for binary arithmetic operators described above the help of.... Overloaded operators have the same way as function overloading tutorial, we write.::operator < < operator overloading boolean contexts represents a linear function of one variable a * x b. To be used in boolean contexts operator ( == ) to compare two objects of user-defined types int ) they. For binary arithmetic operators described above for memory related operations +x, -x,! =, > = <. Likewise, the corresponding compound assignment operator ( ), but to illustrate the usage the behavior-changing! Form the other value operations like Complex C = a+b, in above code overload... C++ operators for operands of operators overloads the function call operator, operator ( for.